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Key-words Dictionary of the Kagoshima Environment

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This is must-know information.
Basic understanding of 100 key words.

Covering fields ranging from characteristic nature and rare flora and fauna to the state of the water and the atmosphere.
For those who love Kagoshima.

■Preface
July 2009

Kagoshima’s nature is characterized by its magnificence and vivid impression. The society and the people who live in such magnificence remain somewhat calm and grand. This aspect of Kagoshima allows it to stand out among other regions of the Japanese archipelago.

Kagoshima lies on a line that runs from the southern corner of Japan proper to the Nansei islands in the southern ocean. It is blessed with extraordinarily powerful and diverse nature, such as the rare Amami rabbit, the very active Sakurajima volcano, and giant sugi-cedar trees in the world heritage site of Yakushima. At the same time Kagoshima has also developed distinctive and refined features due to the geographical location of its being open to the south.

In the autumn of 2008, a new approach began taking shape with the goal of finding a way towards a systematic regional environmental studies in this Kagoshima. This effort led to the founding of the “Kagoshima Environmental Studies Program”. The program is made up of an organized working group composed of members from diverse fields, including mass media, the prefectural government and young researchers from the local university. This book, titled “Key-words Dictionary of the Kagoshima Environment”, is the outcome that represents our achievements.

This book describes Kagoshima’s nature and environment using 100 key words and the explanations attached to each item. The information is based on administrative materials received from Kagoshima prefecture, and major index graphs taken from “Kagoshima’s environmental indexes” are also listed.

In the past, environmental issues were mainly concerned with conflict of interests like pollution or destruction of nature, which is limited to particular areas. However, understanding of the impact given to the whole globe by human activities and the close relationship between economic activities and environmental issues has been drastically improved. Now environmental issues are coming to be regarded as problems related to the root of human society. We hope that this “dictionary” will function as the basis for the Kagoshima Environmental Studies Program. We would be very pleased if this book serves as an introductory guide to those who have interest in the environment, and if they freely use it to learn about basic environmental issues.

Kagoshima Environmental Studies Program Working Group

 

■Table of Contents

Preface

Outline of the environmental characteristics of Kagoshima

①  Location / area: Prefectural land extending 600 km from north to south including many remote islands

② Climate / sea current: Mild climate at the southern tip of Japan proper

③ Topography / geology: caldera and island arc-trench system

④ The Watase Line: One of the world famous boundary lines for biogeographical distribution

⑤ Northern and southern distribution limits of animals and plants: Kagoshima is the southern limit for Macaca fuscata fuscata

⑥ History / folklore: The relationship between the southern area and the development of pioneering culture ahead of other areas of Japan

⑦ Population / industry: Characterized by aging population and a large share of primary industries

⑧ Protected areas: To save the affluent nature of Kagoshima for future generations

2.  Nature of each region
⑨ Kirishima is akin to a Museum of volcanoes ? chosen as one of the top 100 sites of geological structures in Japan

⑩ Sakurajima: The symbol of Kagoshima ? conservation of its landscape

⑪ Fukiagehama: One of Japan’s prominent sand dunes

⑫ Tideland at the river mouth of the Manose River: Mudflat ecosystems that nurture diverse life

⑬ Fireflies: Various types of fireflies responding to their region’s respective features

⑭ Imuta-ike wetlands designated as a Ramsar Convention site: floating islands and Libellula angelina are seen on the wetlands

⑮ Chiringajima: A beautiful island connected to land by a coastal sand bar

⑯ Mt. Kaimon-dake: Landmark for ocean-going traffic since ancient times

⑰ Mt. Inao-take: Precious forest reserve in the unexplored Osumi area

⑱ Cape Sata: The southern tip of Japan proper, abundant sub-tropical flora and fauna

⑲ Camphor tree: Giant trees of Kagoshima

⑳ Koshikishima: Characteristic topography of tied island and barrier beach

21 Yakushima: Environmental Cultural Village ? an island of “coexistence and circulation”

22 Jomonsugi cedar: Symbol of the ecosystem unique to Yakushima

23 Environmental preservation of Yakushima’s mountains: various efforts to preserve natural environments

24 Nagatahama beach: Japan’s largest spawning area for sea turtles

25 Seiburindo path: Green tunnel running through the Yakushima world heritage site

26 Tokara islands: Islands of diversity with untouched nature

27 Amami islands: Towards designation as a world natural heritage site

28 Kinsakubaru: subtropical lucidophyllus forest on Amami

29 Mangrove: Kagoshima is the northern limit of mangroves

30 Coral reef community at the northern limit: Coral reefs of Amami archipelago are at  a critical stage

31 Islands of elevated coral reefs: The formation of islands derived from coral reefs and their unique natural environment

[3]  Endangered wild flora and fauna species

32 Red data book of Kagoshima prefecture: Endangered wild life species

33 The Amami rabbit: Endemic rabbit inhabits only Amamioshima and Tokunoshima islands

34 Spinous rat / Long-haired rat: Varieties of rare mammals and their habitat distribution / protective measures

35 Yaku-sika, Cervus nippon mageshimae: Issues related to subspecies of Cervus nippon

36 Cranes in Izumi: World’s largest wintering site for hooded cranes and white-naped cranes

37 Black-faced spoonbill: rare species that winters in Kagoshima

38 Great scaly thrush: Its habitat situation and the conservation work being done for it

39 Sea turtle: Important spawning region for sea turtles of the Pacific Ocean region

40 Ryukyu-ayu: Rare fish species and its habitat distribution, protection and utilization

41 Libellula Angelina: Its habitat situation and the conservation work being done for it

42 N. p. hamaii Mizunuma, 1994: rare insect species and its habitat distribution, overexploitation and protection

43 Endangered botanical species of Amami: rare plant species and its habitat distribution, overexploitation and protection

[4] Alien species

44 Feral dogs / feral cats: New threat brought in by human beings that impact the ecosystem of Amami

45 Mongoose: Unexpected impact, eradication efforts, measures against alien species

46 Bezoar: Management of domestic animals and their eradication from the wild areas

47 Tree-climbing lizard: Prevention of population expansion, which was caused by unintentional introduction

48 Micropterus / bluegill: Impact on fresh-water ecosystem caused by alien fish

49 Latrodectus geometricus: Unintended impact

50 Lanceleaf tickseed: Alien plant expanding its distribution along roads
[5] Water environments

51 Water pollution in Kagoshima: Water quality status of rivers and oceans are evaluated by the achievement of environmental standards

52 Kagoshima Bay: Core of Kagoshima’s industry and transportation; spiritual hometown for prefectural citizens

53 Lake Ikeda: Preserve the water quality of the largest lake in Kyushu

54 Japan’s 100 remarkable waters in Kagoshima: The communities’ determination to protect the abundant water environments of Kagoshima

55 Water environments of Kagoshima: The 600 km geographical expanse from north to south provides a rich water environment

56 Human sewage: Human sewage contaminates rivers and oceans

57 Soil contamination: Soil contamination is one of the seven representative pullutions

[6]  Air environment

58 Air contamination in Kagoshima: The air environment is favorably maintained in Kagoshima

59 Air contamination caused by yellow sand has been observed

60 Photochemical oxidants: Higher contamination in recent years may have been influenced by the continent

61 Acid rain: The phenomenon is observed throughout East Asia

62 Volcanic activities of Sakurajima and the air environment: Knowing the impact of volcanic gas on the air environment

63 Prevention of noise and building vibration: Prevent noise and vibration caused by business activities

64 Environmental observation: Constantly monitor the quality of water and air environments

65 Prevention of odors: Introduction of ventilation index regulations

66 Chemical substances: System to control chemical substances that support our life

67 Landscape of environment: Everything we feel with our five senses is regarded as the environment
Issues to be solved by the region

68 Environmental master plan: Basic plan concerning environmental preservation and formation

69 Environmental impact assessment: Environment assessment system

70 Environmental studies: Develop human resources who are highly aware of the need for environmental preservation and are willing to work on environmental issues

71 Making and developing environmental education in Kagoshima: Comparison with the environmental education history of Japan and other countries

72 Kagoshima environmental partners system: Promotion to be an advanced region for the global environment with the collaborative power of government and private sectors

73 Coexistence, coordination and environmental conservation activities: Towards the formation of new local communities

74 Eco tourism: Attempts to develop communities rooted in nature and culture

75 Formation of circulatory society: Towards the formation of an earth-friendly circulatory society

76 General waste: Garbage, if mixed; asset, if separated

77 Minamata Disease issue: Endeavors to solve Minamata disease problems and to save the victims

78  Landscape measures: Create landscapes utilizing features of Kagoshima prefecture

79 Urban greening: Raise the alarm to the urban heat-island phenomenon

80 Protection of Satochi / Satoyama: Homeland landscape to be passed on to the future

81 Expansion and management of bamboo forests: expansion of bamboo forest area

82 Wildlife conservation: Recent movement concerning wildlife protection and damages caused by wildlife

83 Avian influenza: Infectious diseases of wild birds
[8] Measures against global warming

84 Measures against global warming: Global warming problems and future approaches to be made by the prefectural government

85 Environmental management system: Business operators spontaneously work on environmental conservation

86 Movement by Kagoshima prefectural citizens to protect the global environment: Work on global warming issues

87 New energy: Renewable energy that requires support for dissemination

88 Stop global warming: One Village One Product Program – efforts utilizing inventive ideas and the original work of the region

89 Amount of emission and the effect of greenhouse gas: Increasing carbon dioxide

90 Ecological driving: Drive vehicles with due consideration to the earth

91 Program to support prevention of global warming: A wide variety of endeavors involving various entities

92 Energy-saving measures: Energy-saving measures at home
[9] Industry and environment

93 Agriculture and stockbreeding industry and environmental conservation measures: Promotion of an environmentally friendly agriculture and stockbreeding industry
94 Industrial waste: Emission control, waste reduction, recycling and proper treatment

95 Shochu lees: Quantity of generation and treatment status in recent years

96 Groundwater contamination: Promotion of nitrogen measures

97 Prevention of red clay outflow in Amami: Preventive measures against water contamination caused by red clay outflow

98 Forestry and forest environment conservation measures: Forest environment tax, forest volunteers

99 Shika Deer: A wild animal that will need to be brought under population control

100  Sea farming and water quality conservation: Protect one of the leading sea farming fishing grounds

“Kagoshima Environment Index” Data 30

Sources, references